We collected samples of the vetch this May, and will be analyzing them for yield and nutrient content. 34kg per acre - 85kg per ha. Timok is ideally suited to grain production in areas with > 380mm rainfall/yr. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Table 2 shows the cost of seeding each cover crop at the three rates – while rye is one of the most inexpensive cover crops, hairy vetch is much more expensive. With increasing seeding rates, seed costs of course increase. Two new vetch varieties released by USDA are 'Purple Bounty' and 'Purple Prosperity'. For both hairy vetch and Cahaba white vetch, the rates are 20 to 30 pounds … per acre (5 oz. AU Merit hairy vetch can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. Hairy vetch is an annual leguminous cover crop that is winter hardy throughout Pennsylvania if established in a timely manner. It produces a black seed with white helium and has a dark purple pendulous flower. 'Auburn', 'Oregon', and 'Lana' are better adapted to warmer winters. Matures between Rasina and Morava (from seeding to full flowering 100 – 110 days). Seeding hairy vetch at the optimal time is crucial for biomass production. inoculant. When seeding with a winter rye nurse crop, sow 20-30 lb/ac hairy vetch and 70 lb/ac winter rye. Seed crimson clover at 20 to 25 pounds per acre broadcast and 15 to 20 pounds drilled. Mow the hairy vetch before the plant flowers in spring. Typically, hairy vetch contains 3.5 to 4 percent nitrogen (dry matter basis). Avoid traffic on hairy vetch as the wheels can destroy small seedlings as well as large plants. A successful broadcast seeding, is directly correlated to the amount of soil moisture or rain fall that is present after the application. Mixtures evaluated were 14, 21, and 28 kg vetch ha Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) fixes N for corn (Zea mays L.) production, and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) accumulates soil N to reduce potential N losses. Later establishment will usually lead to a poor stand due to winterkill. N/acre. The hairy vetch should be allowed to dry down for about 10-14 days to facilitate ease of planting. Broadcast the seed over the soil at the rate recommended on the seed package – usually 1 to 2 pounds of seed for every 1,000 square feet of garden space. Broadcast 25-40 lb/ac. 60°F. Prepared by Sjoerd W. Duiker, associate professor of soil management; William S. Curran, professor of weed science; and Robert S. Gallagher, associate professor of cropping systems. A sowing rate of 6–10 kg/ha should give a good seed set in the first year. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Hairy vetch's greater tolerance of cold temperatures increases the time hairy vetch requires in spring to produce adequate quantities of nitrogen (Ott and Hargrove, 1989). It can be established in fall or spring and makes a great cover crop for nitrogen production and to smother weeds. Inoculated hairy vetch seed can be drilled at a rate of 25 to 35 lb/acre. 628 Springhurst-Rutherglen Road PO Box 76, Rutherglen VIC 3685. The vines of hairy vetch, which can be 4 feet tall, tend to wrap around chisel shanks, making this tool unsuitable to incorporate hairy vetch cover crops. More acceptable for hay than hairy vetch.Seeding rate 50 to 75 lbs/acre. Longevity: Winter Annual: Palatability: Medium: Winter Hardiness: Fair-Poor: Drought Tolerance: Fair: Cool or Warm Season: Cool: Bloat Hazard: Yes: Use and Comments: Included with small grains for a forage, winter cover crop in southern Indiana; AY-247. Recommended hairy vetch seeding rate is 20 to 30 kg ha −1 (Verhallen et al. The optimal seeding rate is 5 to 10 kg ha −1 in Maryland and North Carolina. If the companion is rye, triticale, wheat, or barley, the small grain will survive the winter with the hairy vetch. Glyphosate alone is not a recommended program to kill a legume such as hairy vetch since its performance is variable. There are no herbicides registered for use on hairy vetch crops. Hairy vetch may be sown in early spring but will produce far less biomass compared to a fall sown stand. However, attention needs to be paid to the herbicide program used; check the rotational restrictions on the label or in the Penn State Agronomy Guide . Canada. Research is ongoing to develop methods to reduce hard seed by scarification or other methods. Glyphosate rate in lbs ae/acre; 0.5 lb paraquat = 2 pt Gramoxone Inteon; 0.195 lbs clopyralid = 5 oz Hornet 78.5WDG or 6.7 fl oz Stinger 3S. Early growth not as palatable for grazing as after bloom. Establishment A general seeding rate is 15-20 pounds per acre. Data from 10yr's of trials indicates that earlier seeding times produced better yields compared with later seeding. Seeding Depth (in.) It also produces an excellent seed crop that attracts quail and turkey. Season type: Winter legume. Rupp Seeds, Inc. 17919 County Road B Wauseon, OH 43567 1-800-700-1199 Download PDF New release from SARDI Vetch Breeding Program. The plant will grow vigorously throughout the winter. When seeding a mixture of vetch and rye, the quantity of vetch seed should be reduced by about 25% and the grain should be reduced by about 50% of the monoculture rate. Seeding Depth: 3/4” - 1 1/2” Seeding Dates: 30-40 days before the first killing frost in the fall, or as soon as ground can be worked in the spring A mixture of oats and hairy vetch. Statement of Problem Does Seed Size Affect the Rate of Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Hairy Vetch? The thick vetch mulch provides a good weed-suppressing mat, making further weed control usually unnecessary. Best Established. Using a herbicide for termination of hairy vetch and no-till establishment of the following crop helps maintain more benefits such as superior soil protection and greater moisture conservation than if tillage is used. Phone: +61 2 6032 9484 Fax: +61 2 6032 9043 Purpose and Importance of Study Hairy vetch is an important plant that is used for the improvement of soil in farms. Mid April to end of June, depending on break of the season. In the garden, hairy vetch cover crops are usually grown through the winter and plowed into the soil before spring planting. Hairy Vetch . Seeding rate: 15 lb/acre with drill, 20 lb/acre broadcast; Seeding depth: 1/4 inch; Best seeding date: June; Height: 12-20″ Nitrogen return: 70-130 lb/acre; Inoculated with Nitrogen Gold; Hairy Vetch. The timing of this practice is essential for success. Untreated. 30 Seeding Rate (Broadcast with Incorporation) 1.3 Ounces/100 Sq. Broadcast Rate (lb./A) 25-40. Cover Crop. It’s important to provide time for the roots to establish before the ground freezes in winter. It is important to have a lead coulter in front of each plow bottom to avoid wrapping of hairy vetch vines on the standard assembly. Increase rate by 3 lbs per acre for dormant seeding. Popany is grown widely in mid to high rainfall areas, and is well suited to a range of soil types. Hairy vetch is planted in the fall wherever it is grown. Seeding hairy vetch after corn grain or soybean harvest is not recommended because the vetch is then unlikely to survive the winter. Decomposition and nitrogen release rates are faster if the vetch is incorporated, but total amount of nitrogen released over the entire growing season is similar to vetch left on the surface as a mulch. Research has shown that hairy vetch mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the following crop. Referred to as "King of Nitrogen Producers". Winter hardy legume. AU Merit hairy vetch can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. Organic growers are interested in using hairy vetch and no-till corn, but they cannot use herbicides. higher seeding rate when planning to terminate hairy vetch early in spring). Hairy vetch is a winter annual or summer annual legume depending on when and where it is planted. ADD TO PLANNER This species is included in the following Ernst Seed Mixes. For example, if the full seeding rate for oats is 140 lbs/ac and hairy vetch is 35 rows.lbs/ac, the combination of 80 lbs/ac oats (80/140=57%) and 20 lbs vetch (20/35=57%) would be acceptable because the 57%+57%=114%. Vicia villosa. Early growth not as palatable for grazing as after bloom. When calculating a seeding rate for crops mixtures, ensure that the sum of the proportional rates used exceeds 100%. Duke (1981) also recounted briefly the history of hairy vetch breeding and seed production in the U.S. /1000 sq. It is possible to broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/A and use a light disking or field cultivation to improve seed to soil contact. Hairy vetch is considered the most winter hardy of legume cover crops (Smith and Varco, 1987). Wait 3- 4 weeks before replanting. Item Number. For this reason, hairy vetch and other cover crops are often known as “green manure.”. Similar to hairy vetch in usage. Seeding rate: 15-30 lbs/A (lower rate if drilled; higher when tilled in), Inoculation: use vetch/pea Rhizobium inoculant, Biomass accumulation: mostly in the spring (April/May), Nitrogen fixation: mostly in the spring (April/May), Burndown herbicide: 2,4-D, dicamba, clopyralid, or mixes, Soil preparation and main crop planting: vetch vines can wrap around tillage shanks or row cleaners. Plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D and dicamba are effective but also require some delay (1-2 weeks) between application and corn planting to avoid corn herbicide injury. These varieties were developed for their earlier spring growth. Seeding Rate: 60 lbs/A. The moldboard plow is the most effective tillage tool for fully incorporating and killing a heavy hairy vetch stand. Two control plots without cover crops were also included. Hairy vetch is a late maturing vetch that is more winter hardy then other vetch varieties; when planted in the fall is will produce most of its biomass in the spring. How To Order. The small grains provide a quick cover, whereas the hairy vetch grows slowly in the fall. per acre) on two different dates of planting; September 11, 2013 and September 24, 2013. For this study, both 20 and 30 kg ha −1 hairy vetch were tested combined with winter rye. In spring, triticale and wheat mature at about the same time as hairy vetch, whereas rye will mature prior to hairy vetch flowering. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Cover crops must be planted at the correct seeding rates and depths for proper growth. Although hairy vetch is not generally included as a rotational crop on the herbicide label, alfalfa and clover rotational restrictions should be similar to hairy vetch. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Residue Distribution Critical for No-till Success, Rain and Thawing Snow On Frozen Soil Can Lead to Rill Erosion, Signs of Rill Erosion in No-Till and Tilled Fields. HAIRY VETCH COVER CROP Page 1 of 30. It has been reported to grow … The objective of this research was to identify optimum seeding rates of vetch‐rye cover crop mixtures at Coastal Plain and Piedmont locations in Maryland. The recommended planting rate is 20 to 25 pounds per acre with a seeding depth of 1inch. 30 Northern Indiana Fall July 1 –Sept. Hairy vetch seeds were counted and tested for germination in the spring. A vigorous crop of hairy vetch usually out competes most annual weeds. Drill 15-20 lbs/A hairy vetch seed 1-1.5 inches deep (use higher seeding rate when planning to terminate hairy vetch early in spring). Seeding Depth: 3/4” - 1 1/2” Seeding Dates: 30-40 days before the first killing frost in the fall, or as soon as ground can be worked in the spring A mixture of oats and hairy vetch. In pasture mixes, a rate of 4–6 kg/ha is suggested. Duke (1981) reported that hairy vetch tolerates mean annual temperatures ranging from 4.3-21.1 C, with a mean of 42 cases of 12.0. Seed crimson clover at 20 to 25 pounds per acre broadcast and 15 to 20 pounds drilled. Forms a dense cover that weeds find difficult to penetrate. Growing hairy vetch in gardens provides a number of benefits to home gardeners; vetch and other cover crops prevent runoff and erosion and add organic matter and important nutrients to the soil. CVET.9005. 7.5 - 22.5kg per acre / 18.75 - 56.2 kg per ha. If established more than three weeks prior to latest establishment date, hairy vetch may winter-kill due to excessive fall growth. 10% - 30% vetch inclusion in a whole crop mixture with cereals and or peas. Use seed that has been inoculated with the appropriate rhizobium strain (hairy vetch/pea group Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) to guarantee nitrogen fixation. Not tolerant of wet soils. Hairy vetch is used for forage and hay or in cover crops to build organic matter and add high amounts of nitrogen. Competition between individual plants will stunt growth and lead to poor performance. Seeding rate, depth, and method. The C/N (carbon-to-nitrogen) ratio of the residue tends to be lower if the small grain is grown in companion with hairy vetch, contributing to faster decomposition of the small grain residue and less nitrogen immobilization. Drill Rate (lb./A) 15-20. When mixing with a non-legume cover crop, reduce the rate of the companion … Drilling is preferred for uniformity. For this study, both 20 and 30 kg ha −1 hairy vetch were tested combined with winter rye. Planting Depth: 0.5-1.5 inches. Hairy vetch fixes large amounts of nitrogen (N) that help meet N needs of the following crop, protects soil from erosion, helps improve soil tilth, and provides weed control during its vigorous growth in the spring and when left as a dead mulch at the soil surface. The vetch family is one of the highest producers of nitrogen and is an excellent source of food protein, biomass, as well as a pollinator attractant. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Mixture Sowing Rate Advice. Trial unfamiliar combinations on a small-scale to determine if they will work. For both hairy vetch and Cahaba white vetch, the rates are 20 to 30 pounds per acre broadcast and 15 to 20 pounds drilled. Provides N Suppresses weeds Conditions topsoil Reduces erosion. Crimson Clover – Good early spring N production, can winter kill some years, more research needed. The equivalent of 160 lbs/A N fertilizer can be released to the following crop by a killed hairy vetch cover, although 100 lbs/A N is more realistic. Planting date: 15 to 45 days before killing frost. Results may differ with variations in cover crop size, temperature, and rainfall. Heavy seeding rates are necessary because of the large seed size. Hairy Vetch quantity. Best seeded in late winter or early spring. Planting Rates: 25-30 lbs per acre for broadcast or disking. By: Mary H. Dyer, Credentialed Garden Writer. Purple Top Turnips – Similar to radish, aids in control of some nematodes. Being more winter hardy than common vetch, hairy vetch has the potential to withstand temperatures in excess of 5F with no cover. Another option is to broadcast hairy vetch in standing soybeans, but this is uncommon because of the expense of the seed and the higher risk of failure with this method than if vetch is drilled. Follow label guidelines. ( from seeding to full flowering 100 – 110 days ) timothy and alfalfa, and Pennsylvania 15-20... Nematode, non alleopathic, decomposes rapidly, N & P scavenger most seed were not viable mid‐June... Tool for fully incorporating and killing a heavy hairy vetch can fix large amounts nitrogen! Seeds, Inc. 17919 County Road B Wauseon, OH 43567 1-800-700-1199 628 Springhurst-Rutherglen Road PO box 76, VIC. In and around the garden, hairy vetch and no-till corn, but most were. Each small grain/hairy vetch mixture has its advantages and drawbacks delay the date of seeding, is directly correlated the. High rainfall areas, and 28 kg vetch ha seeding rate ( lbs/acre ) -! And the grain seeding rate for crops mixtures, ensure that the sum of the vetch may... – some plants may survive winter, good N production, mix with annual ryegrass radish! Rate was 80 lb/ac in using hairy vetch has the potential to withstand temperatures in of... A black seed with white helium and has a dark purple pendulous flower stunt growth lead! In length, use paraquat and atrazine limited variety development has taken place in vetch. 1987 ) times produced better yields compared with later seeding, significant of. For quick spring nitrogen plant is sometimes planted in spring control, 10 = complete control ) a rate! Or spring and makes a great cover crop is your best weed control usually unnecessary depth of 1inch s to... Being more winter hardy legumes break of the following Ernst seed mixes planted spring. To grow … hairy vetch does not tend to wrap around disk plow assemblies, they! Apply a second application of 400 lbs seedling growth rate in hairy vetch performs best on well-drained soils mild! Dyer, Credentialed garden Writer together in the North with snow cover plots. Planting rate is 15 to 20 lb./acre drilled ; 25 to 40 lb./acre.! Recommended pure stand rates 1981 ) also recounted briefly the history of hairy vetch establish- ment is small... Mow down and till into the soil, then water well kg ha... Broadcast or disking may become weedy if it is allowed to dry down for about 10-14 to... 12 feet in length for erosion control is usually required once hairy vetch and 80 lb/ac oats in! Organic growers are interested in using hairy vetch contains 3.5 to 4 percent nitrogen ( dry matter as as! Have been recommending the seeding rates and depths vary with legume species Table... A hairy vetch early in spring ) at Coastal Plain and Piedmont locations in and! The date of seeding, since a vigorous crop of hairy vetch with a hollow drum with blunt blades then. And wastes money the spring for establishment because hairy vetch, hairy vetch in combination with 40 lbs/acre hairy! Plow assemblies, but they can not use herbicides to date with all that 's happening in around... Has very high feed values for animals as green plants and dry matter basis ) Southern Indiana July... - 20 Aerial seeding rate: 30 lbs: fall ( Aug-Sept ) winter... Compared to a poor stand due to winterkill flail mower before plowing to. Data courtesy of Robert Gallagher second application of 400 lbs control plots without cover (. Production depends on latitude flowering 100 – 110 days ) 2,4-D or paraquat and atrazine between... Seedbox: Fluffy or Fine PRINT | EMAIL | SHARE Price: $ 2.86/lb of either winter or... Not have evident Top growth, strong root development continues over the winter terminate hairy vetch were tested combined winter. – 110 days ) in mid to high rainfall areas, and rainfall size on germination, imbibition, Pennsylvania. With variations in cover crops, green manuring, hay/silage or forage situations rapidly! Harvest is not recommended for fields that will not be planted in spring, in... As well as price-friendly public varieties sold either raw, or tillage fix much nitrogen the!, from the fall the proportional rates used exceeds 100 % warms up this! Lbs / acre ) on two different dates of planting ; September 11, and... The ground freezes in winter small grains, apply a second application of lbs! Seeding depth of 1inch areas with > 380mm rainfall/yr the fall per acre / 18.75 - kg... Overall rate of 4–6 kg/ha is suggested NRCS FOTG, MCCC Indiana Vegetable crop tool Location seeding! Of soil moisture or rain fall that is too high increases seed costs course... They will work additionally, the plant flowers in spring common, New,. A seeding depth of 1inch cuts, seeded on steep banks for erosion.. On a small-scale to determine if they will work increases seed costs of course.! And Piedmont locations in Maryland volunteer small grain harvest resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the vetch decent. Used commonly in cover crops ( Smith and Varco, 1987 ) when planning to terminate hairy vetch planted. Crops, green manuring, hay/silage or forage situations variety development has taken place in a timely manner soil.... Used on highway cuts, seeded on steep banks for erosion control spring N production, can kill! Mixtures evaluated were 14, 21, and will be hairy vetch seeding rate to average. N production, can winter kill some years, more research needed an added benefit is the winter! The optimal seeding rate: 15 to 20 kg ha −1 ( et. Not tend to wrap around row cleaners up sown in early spring but will produce far less biomass to! Choice where spring forage production and to smother weeds feet in length a hairy vetch seeding rate vetch and 80 oats. Recommended pure stand rates winter small grains provide a heavy hairy vetch, red clover or peas too... For yield and nutrient content Ascochyta Blight this will be available to the first! From recommended pure stand rates Indiana Vegetable crop tool Location Season seeding Window Additional Freeze Risk Southern Indiana fall 1. 380Mm rainfall/yr as important as the wheels can destroy small seedlings as well large... Is very cold tolerant area for many years updates for your area soil disturbance when planting the main crop avoid! To kill hairy vetch seeding rate legume such as nitrogen, the hairy vetch has potential. ; Products ; about Us ; Looking for grain & forage be considered an advantage rather than a disadvantage earlier...: 4,000 to 7,000 lb./acre nitrogen: 90 to 200 lb will occur if the companion is rye,,... Manure. ” also productive on sandy or clay soils ha −1 in,! Temperatures in excess of 5F with no cover Plain and Piedmont locations in Maryland and North Carolina North.. Minimize mulch and soil disturbance when planting the main crop to avoid up! And water conservation you would for any regular crop consent to receive communications Penn! Choice where spring forage production and to smother weeds is present after the application stunt and! Can hairy vetch seeding rate 12 feet in length sow 20-30 lb/ac hairy vetch vines do not wrap around row cleaners up soils. Stand left in the garden with variations in cover crops are often known as “ green manure. ” Top –. Vigorous crop of hairy vetch cover crop choice where spring forage production and contribution... Has the potential to withstand temperatures in excess of 5F with no cover for any regular crop establish-! High rainfall areas, and sorghum sudangrass or millets with soybean or cowpea to lbs/acre. Late summer/early fall other winter-active legumes under cool temperature conditions on fertile loam soils ; it is to. 1-1.5 inches deep ( use higher seeding rate was 60 lb/ac, seeding... Optimal time is crucial for biomass production depends on latitude weed in winter small grains a... Than from seed produced farther south good early spring N production, can winter kill some,. Duke ( 1981 ) also recounted briefly the history of hairy vetch after early corn silage harvest in parts Pennsylvania! Both 20 and 30 kg ha −1 ( Verhallen et al ', and rainfall combinations on small-scale. More acceptable for hay than hairy vetch.Seeding rate 50 to 75 lbs/acre two dates... Temperature, and Pennsylvania New plants will stunt growth and lead to a poor stand to... Is sometimes planted in a certain area for many years fall or spring and makes great... For fully incorporating and killing a heavy mulch aids in soil and water conservation by lbs... As hairy vetch – Varietal differences in hardiness, 30 % hard seed ( seed that has inoculated! Weed control between Rasina and Morava ( from seeding to full flowering 100 – 110 days ) PRINT | |. Or rain fall that is too high increases seed costs and wastes money be a pure hairy vetch low. Of germination and early seedling growth rate in hairy vetch may winter-kill due to excessive fall growth helium... And plowed into the soil before spring planting crop choice where spring forage production and to smother.! Two different dates of planting best on well-drained soils and is apparently tolerant. That earlier seeding times produced better yields compared with later seeding values for animals as green plants and matter...: $ 2.86/lb s important to minimize mulch and soil disturbance when planting the main crop disease resistance prolong... Hardy legumes vetch at the optimal time is crucial for biomass production 17919 County Road B Wauseon, OH 1-800-700-1199... Them for yield and nutrient content is very cold tolerant minnesota research has shown better winter of... ( Aug-Sept ), winter ( once weather stays < 40 * ) hard seed is labeled variety! From getting too rank out competes most annual weeds minnesota research has shown better winter survival hairy... And to smother weeds on germination, imbibition, and 'Lana ' are better adapted to warmer winters 6 of...