No need to register, buy now! [209] To his dismay, he was rebuffed by the town's Parliamentary governor, Sir John Hotham, who refused him entry in April, and Charles was forced to withdraw. Charles inherited his father’s belief in the Divine Right of Kings, a doctrine upheld by the entire Stuart dynasty, one of the most powerful families ever to have ruled Scotland. [20] James's Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon, was impeached before the House of Lords for corruption. Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom. [226] Attempts to negotiate a settlement over the winter, while both sides re-armed and re-organised, were again unsuccessful. The conflict, originally confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public quickly grew to see as a polarised continental struggle between Catholics and Protestants. The incident set an important precedent as the process of impeachment would later be used against Charles and his supporters: the Duke of Buckingham, Archbishop William Laud, and the Earl of Strafford. 3. In November 1627, the test case in the King's Bench, the "Five Knights' Case", found that the king had a prerogative right to imprison without trial those who refused to pay the forced loan. Copyright © Historic Royal Palaces 2021Historic Royal Palaces is a Registered Charity (No. [46] With the support of King James, Montagu produced another pamphlet, entitled Appello Caesarem, in 1625 shortly after the old king's death and Charles's accession. [168] However, following an attempted royalist coup in Scotland, known as "The Incident", Charles's credibility was significantly undermined. [42] Charles was crowned on 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey, but without his wife at his side because she refused to participate in a Protestant religious ceremony. The magnificent Rubens ceiling painting at the Banqueting House, completed in 1636, was commissioned by Charles to celebrate these divine principles. Image: The Execution of Charles I, © National Galleries of Scotland. The trial and execution of Charles took place in January 1649, with his death marking the end of Stuart rule in England until the restoration of the monarchy 11 years later. [91] To raise revenue without reconvening Parliament, Charles resurrected an all-but-forgotten law called the "Distraint of Knighthood", in abeyance for over a century, which required any man who earned £40 or more from land each year to present himself at the king's coronation to be knighted. At Turnham Green on the outskirts of London, the royalist army met resistance from the city militia, and faced with a numerically superior force, Charles ordered a retreat. In this extremity, in July Charles seized silver bullion worth £130,000 held in trust at the mint in the Tower of London, promising its later return at 8% interest to its owners. About this Course; About this Lecturer; About this Course. In a nutshell, King Charles I believed that he held the Divine Right of Kings and that he should have absolute rule. [117] In 1637, the king ordered the use of a new prayer book in Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consulting either the Scottish Parliament or the Kirk. The English Parliament distrusted Charles's motivations when he called for funds to put down the Irish rebellion; many members of the Commons suspected that forces raised by Charles might later be used against Parliament itself. The commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common hangman of London, but he refused, at least at first, despite being offered £200. Subject: History. 1068852). When armed conflict arose between the Gaelic Irish and New English, in late October 1641, the Old English sided with the Gaelic Irish while simultaneously professing their loyalty to the king. [167], Charles had made important concessions in England, and temporarily improved his position in Scotland by securing the favour of the Scots on a visit from August to November 1641 during which he conceded to the official establishment of presbyterianism. [170] He had trained up a large Catholic army in support of the king and had weakened the authority of the Irish Parliament,[171] while continuing to confiscate land from Catholics for Protestant settlement at the same time as promoting a Laudian Anglicanism that was anathema to presbyterians. [27] The Infanta thought Charles to be little more than an infidel, and the Spanish at first demanded that he convert to Roman Catholicism as a condition of the match. [104] In August, after the East India Company refused to grant a loan,[105] Lord Cottington seized the company's stock of pepper and spices and sold it for £60,000 (far below its market value), promising to refund the money with interest later. The Charges Against the King ; That the said Charles Stuart, being admitted King of England, and therein trusted with a limited power to govern by and according to the laws of the land, and not otherwise and by his trust, oath and office, being obliged to … Charles's nephew Prince Rupert of the Rhine disagreed with the battle strategy of the royalist commander Lord Lindsey, and Charles sided with Rupert. [330], As Duke of York, Charles bore the royal arms of the kingdom differenced by a label Argent of three points, each bearing three torteaux Gules. [5] In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. Charles insisted that the trial was illegal, explaining that, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, no earthly power can justly call me (who am your King) in question as a delinquent ... this day's proceeding cannot be warranted by God's laws; for, on the contrary, the authority of obedience unto Kings is clearly warranted, and strictly commanded in both the Old and New Testament ... for the law of this land, I am no less confident, that no learned lawyer will affirm that an impeachment can lie against the King, they all going in his name: and one of their maxims is, that the King can do no wrong ... the higher House is totally excluded; and for the House of Commons, it is too well known that the major part of them are detained or deterred from sitting ... the arms I took up were only to defend the fundamental laws of this kingdom against those who have supposed my power hath totally changed the ancient government. Facts about Charles 1st Execution 4: the schedule for the execution. According to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, he "threw himself upon his bed, lamenting with much passion and with abundance of tears". Charles was convicted of treason and executed on 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. [252], Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and thereafter to Windsor Castle. [217] He overwintered in Oxford, strengthening the city's defences and preparing for the next season's campaign. In the centre of the blackened and sanded floor stood the axe and a lower quartering block of a kind used to dismember traitors. [295], The commission refused to allow Charles's burial at Westminster Abbey, so his body was conveyed to Windsor on the night of 7 February. [316] Revered by high Tories who considered him a saintly martyr,[135] he was condemned by Whig historians, such as Samuel Rawson Gardiner, who thought him duplicitous and delusional. [242], From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties. [154] Pym and his allies immediately launched a bill of attainder, which simply declared Strafford guilty and pronounced the sentence of death. The Execution of Charles I, 1649 Printer Friendly Version >>> K ing Charles I was his own worst enemy. [178] Disputes concerning the transfer of land ownership from native Catholic to settler Protestant,[179] particularly in relation to the plantation of Ulster,[180] coupled with resentment at moves to ensure the Irish Parliament was subordinate to the Parliament of England,[181] sowed the seeds of rebellion. He … [34] An under-funded makeshift army under Ernst von Mansfeld set off to recover the Palatinate, but it was so poorly provisioned that it never advanced beyond the Dutch coast. It is said that Brandon, the official executioner could not be found. On January 30, 1649, Charles I, King of England was beheaded for treason and other high crimes at the Palace of Whitehall in London, England where a scaffold had been built outside the Banqueting House. To learn more or change your settings, please see our cookie policy, Updated 12 June. Discover books inspired by the palaces in our care, learn about fascinating periods of British history, including our official palace guide books, children's books and more. [23] In January 1622, James dissolved Parliament, angry at what he perceived as the members' impudence and intransigence. I would have no such imputation. This came three hours later. Rather than endure another Civil War, Parliament invited the late King’s son to return to rule. He became heir apparent to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1612 on the death of his elder brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. [16] In 1620, Charles's brother-in-law, Frederick V, was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague and his hereditary lands in the Electoral Palatinate were invaded by a Habsburg force from the Spanish Netherlands. [2], James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, and while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health,[3] he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian. Four hundred years of history and the site of a royal execution, The crowning glory of the Banqueting House, Generous, scholarly James and his cultured wife. [184] Furthermore, the Remonstrance had very little support in the House of Lords, which the Remonstrance attacked. In 1813, part of Charles's beard, a piece of neck bone, and a tooth were taken as relics. [11], Eventually, Charles apparently conquered his physical infirmity,[11] which might have been caused by rickets. [317] In recent decades, most historians have criticised him,[318] the main exception being Kevin Sharpe who offered a more sympathetic view of Charles that has not been widely adopted. [159] The Commons passed the bill on 20 April by a large margin (204 in favour, 59 opposed, and 230 abstained), and the Lords acquiesced (by 26 votes to 19, with 79 absent) in May. Ship money, paid directly to the Treasury of the Navy, provided between £150,000 to £200,000 annually between 1634 and 1638, after which yields declined. [135], Ten days after Charles's execution, on the day of his interment, a memoir purporting to be written by the king appeared for sale. [96] The prosecution of John Hampden for non-payment in 1637–38 provided a platform for popular protest, and the judges found against Hampden only by the narrow margin of 7–5. Parliament controlled London, the south-east and East Anglia, as well as the English navy. [9] Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages, mathematics and religion. Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017. This event is one of the most famous in Stuart Englands history and one of the most controversial. The King, his hair now bound in a white nightcap, took off his cloak and laid down. Without the means in the foreseeable future to raise funds from Parliament for a European war, or the help of Buckingham, Charles made peace with France and Spain. [199] However, news of the warrant reached Parliament ahead of him, and the wanted men slipped away by boat shortly before Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed guard on 4 January. Born and died the same day. [12] However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid (or possibly porphyria). The Battle of Naseby in June 1645 and the defeat of the Royalist army probably marked the turning point in the war, although fighting dragged on until 1649. [324] Both Charles and James were advocates of the divine right of kings, but while James's ambitions concerning absolute prerogative were tempered by compromise and consensus with his subjects, Charles believed that he had no need to compromise or even to explain his actions. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, and was determined to govern according to his own conscience. She recorded every detail in her diary that evening. Two men, heavily disguised with masks, stood ready to perform the act. Charles, the Bishop and his attendant Thomas Herbert walked across St James’s Park, the King wrapped in a black cloak, surrounded on all sides by guards. [111] The Feoffees for Impropriations, an organisation that bought benefices and advowsons so that Puritans could be appointed to them, was dissolved. [140] Following the illness of the earl of Northumberland, who was the king's commander-in-chief, Charles and Strafford went north to command the English forces, despite Strafford being ill himself with a combination of gout and dysentery. Previously, collection of ship money had been authorised only during wars, and only on coastal regions. [125], The military failure in the First Bishops' War caused a financial and diplomatic crisis for Charles that deepened when his efforts to raise funds from Spain, while simultaneously continuing his support for his Palatine relatives, led to the public humiliation of the Battle of the Downs, where the Dutch destroyed a Spanish bullion fleet off the coast of Kent in sight of the impotent English navy. However his … [7], In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, and made a Knight of the Bath. [266], Over the first three days of the trial, whenever Charles was asked to plead, he refused,[267] stating his objection with the words: "I would know by what power I am called hither, by what lawful authority...? [60], Charles provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan": a tax levied without parliamentary consent. [261], Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of the country. [288] The clean strike, confirmed by an examination of the king's body at Windsor in 1813,[289][h] suggests that the execution was carried out by an experienced headsman. [36], With the failure of the Spanish match, Charles and Buckingham turned their attention to France. The Parliamentarians controlled two of Charles’ kids. By Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) Charles I. was executed at Whitehall on Jan. 30, 1649, and was buried on the same night in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. For example, James I ruled without Parliament between 1614 and 1621. After Charles’ execution, Oliver Cromwell, whose signature can be seen on Charles I's death warrant, gradually established himself the ruler of England. [176], Strafford's fall from power weakened Charles's influence in Ireland. [126], Charles continued peace negotiations with the Scots in a bid to gain time before launching a new military campaign. © National Portrait Gallery, London. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. But they were held so far away that the King's final short speech was lost in the freezing air. His plan to undermine the city walls failed due to heavy rain, and on the approach of a parliamentary relief force, Charles lifted the siege and withdrew to Sudeley Castle. [186] Throughout November, a series of alarmist pamphlets published stories of atrocities in Ireland,[187] which included massacres of New English settlers by the native Irish who could not be controlled by the Old English lords. The two armies met at Newbury, Berkshire, on 20 September. [115], When Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties. [240] He fled Hampton Court on 11 November, and from the shores of Southampton Water made contact with Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight, whom he apparently believed to be sympathetic. [71] She became pregnant for the first time, and the bond between them grew stronger. Like many of Charles I’s regicides, and indeed the King himself, he faced the executioner with remarkable courage. The only precedent for the execution of a monarch was that of Charles’s grandmother Mary, Queen of Scots. Charles I only became heir when his brother Henry died in 1612. The following day, the king was brought before a public session of the commission, declared guilty, and sentenced. [66] He remained grieving in his room for two days. [194] In an attempt to strengthen his position, Charles generated great antipathy in London, which was already fast falling into lawlessness, when he placed the Tower of London under the command of Colonel Thomas Lunsford, an infamous, albeit efficient, career officer. Many watching were aghast, with one witness commenting 'There was such a groan by the thousands then present as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again’. Two-year-old Charles spent his first English Christmas at Hampton Court Palace. They were permitted to visit him on 29 January, and he bade them a tearful farewell. As a result of the Coronavirus global pandemic, we have taken the difficult decision to close Banqueting House until March 2021. Cromwell was said to have visited Charles's coffin, sighing "Cruel necessity!" It is not their having a share in the government; that is nothing appertaining unto them. Charles delayed the opening of his first Parliament until after the marriage was consummated, to forestall any opposition. After a little pause, the King stretched out his hand, and the axe fell, the executioner severing his head in one clean blow. They met virtually no resistance until reaching Newcastle upon Tyne, where they defeated the English forces at the Battle of Newburn and occupied the city, as well as the neighbouring county of Durham. [26] In the end, however, the trip was an embarrassing failure. [248] Hammond was replaced as Governor of the Isle of Wight on 27 November, and placed in the custody of the army the following day. [44] In his pamphlet A New Gag for an Old Goose (1624), a reply to the Catholic pamphlet A New Gag for the New Gospel, Montagu argued against Calvinist predestination, the doctrine that salvation and damnation were preordained by God. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. By the time of his death in March 1625, Charles and the Duke of Buckingham had already assumed de facto control of the kingdom. Of the 493 members of the Commons returned in November, over 350 were opposed to the king. [14], In 1613, Charles's sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, and moved to Heidelberg. [249] In Pride's Purge on 6 and 7 December, the members of Parliament out of sympathy with the military were arrested or excluded by Colonel Thomas Pride,[250] while others stayed away voluntarily. [87], A large fiscal deficit had arisen in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. [134], By this stage Strafford, Lord Deputy of Ireland since 1632,[136] had emerged as Charles's right-hand man and together with Laud, pursued a policy of "Thorough" that aimed to make central royal authority more efficient and effective at the expense of local or anti-government interests. Although born in Scotland, Charles had become estranged from his northern kingdom; his first visit since early childhood was for his Scottish coronation in 1633. Charles Ogilvie writes how Charles's continued misjudgments revealed that, if the world were to be made safe for the “Godly,” the King must be executed. [4], By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, and it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. [244], Charles's only recourse was to return to negotiations,[245] which were held at Newport on the Isle of Wight. The royal marriage produced nine children, including future Charles II, and Mary Henrietta, who married William II of Orange. [257] The Rump Commons declared itself capable of legislating alone, passed a bill creating a separate court for Charles's trial, and declared the bill an act without the need for royal assent. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. [164] In the following months, ship money, fines in distraint of knighthood and excise without parliamentary consent were declared unlawful, and the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished. "[202] Charles abjectly declared "all my birds have flown", and was forced to retire, empty-handed. If Charles’ popular and likeable elder brother Henry had not died young of typhoid it is unlikely that England would have been riven by the bloodiest civil war ever known. [278] He blamed his fate on his failure to prevent the execution of his loyal servant Strafford: "An unjust sentence that I suffered to take effect, is punished now by an unjust sentence on me. [149] Strafford was taken into custody on 10 November; Laud was impeached on 18 December; John Finch, now Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, was impeached the following day, and he consequently fled to the Hague with Charles's permission on 21 December. Under the agreement, called the "Engagement", the Scots undertook to invade England on Charles's behalf and restore him to the throne on condition that presbyterianism be established in England for three years. Image: Bust of King Charles I outside Banqueting House. Charles I, King of England Charles I, King of England by Anthony van Dyck, circa 1638; Credit – Wikipedia [215] Lindsey, acting as a colonel, was wounded and bled to death without medical attention. [28] The Spanish insisted on toleration of Catholics in England and the repeal of the penal laws, which Charles knew would never be agreed by Parliament, and that the Infanta remain in Spain for a year after any wedding to ensure that England complied with all the terms of the treaty. They were permitted to visit him on 29 January, and he bade them a tearful farewell. [273], Charles's beheading was scheduled for Tuesday, 30 January 1649. All dates in this article are given in the. [163], Additionally in early May, Charles assented to an unprecedented Act that forbade the dissolution of the English Parliament without its consent. [306], Partly inspired by his visit to the Spanish court in 1623,[307] Charles became a passionate and knowledgeable art collector, amassing one of the finest art collections ever assembled. Charles also believed that he had the sole right to make laws, so to oppose him was a sin against God. [239] By November, he determined that it would be in his best interests to escape – perhaps to France, Southern England or to Berwick-upon-Tweed, near the Scottish border. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was the second son of James VI of Scotland/James I of England and the youngest of the royal family. Without Cromwell’s … After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. "[280] He continued, "I shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be. [141] The Scottish soldiery, many of whom were veterans of the Thirty Years' War,[142] had far greater morale and training compared to their English counterparts. [206], Parliament quickly seized London, and Charles fled the capital for Hampton Court Palace on 10 January,[207] moving two days later to Windsor Castle. They recommended making peace. In addition to acquiring a personal collection of some 1,400 paintings and 400 pieces of sculpture, he also patronised and encouraged the leading artists and architects of the day. Many historians consider called it a coup d’état. [221] In January 1644, Charles summoned a Parliament at Oxford, which was attended by about 40 peers and 118 members of the Commons; all told, the Oxford Parliament, which sat until March 1645, was supported by the majority of peers and about a third of the Commons. Uprisings in Kent, Essex, and Cumberland, and a rebellion in South Wales, were put down by the New Model Army, and with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Preston in August 1648, the royalists lost any chance of winning the war. Self-righteous, arrogant, and unscrupulous; he had a penchant for making bad decisions. Palatine, and he bade them a tearful farewell, royal Collection Trust/© her Majesty Queen II. 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